Operating System:

Published:

15 July 1999

Protect yourself against future threats.

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===========================================================================
              AUSCERT External Security Bulletin Redistribution
                             
               ESB-1999.093 -- CIAC INFORMATION BULLETIN J-043
                     Creating/Installing Warning Banners
                               16 July 1999

===========================================================================

The U.S. Department of Energy Computer Incident Advisory Capability has
released the following bulletin concerning the installation of
login/startup/connection banners on various platforms.

AusCERT recommends the use of similar banners to warn against unauthorised
system access. Although the wording may differ depending on your system
and network requirements the banner should contain a warning that
unauthorised use, even where no data is destroyed or added, may constitute
an offence against State or Commonwealth law punishable by imprisonment.
More information about banner content including an example can be found
at
ftp://ftp.auscert.org.au/pub/auscert/advisory/AA-93.03.Suggested.Login.Banner

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             __________________________________________________________

                       The U.S. Department of Energy
                    Computer Incident Advisory Capability
                           ___  __ __    _     ___
                          /       |     /_   /
                          \___  __|__  /     \___
             __________________________________________________________

                             INFORMATION BULLETIN

                     Creating/Installing Warning Banners

June 23, 1999 1:00 GMT                                           Number J-043a
______________________________________________________________________________
PROBLEM:       A requirement for successfully prosecuting those unauthorized
               users who improperly use a government computer is that the
               computer must have a warning banner displayed at all access
               points. That banner must warn authorized and unauthorized users
                   1) about what is considered the proper use of the system,
                   2) that the system is being monitored to detect improper
                      use and other illicit activity,
                   3) that there is no expectation of privacy while using
                      this system.
               The technical details for implementing banners is dependent on
               the particular operating system and access point.
PLATFORM:      Macintosh, Windows NT, Windows 95, 98 Windows 3.11, DOS, and
               UNIX systems.
DAMAGE:        Failure to have notification might be used as a defense in the
               prosecution of a user or intruder for improper use of the
               system.
SOLUTION:      Make the modifications described here to add banners to all
               access points on your system. Where it is not possible to
               implement automatic electronic banners, a printed banner should
               be attached where it can be read by the user of the system.
______________________________________________________________________________
VULNERABILITY  A new requirement from the Department Of Energy is that every
ASSESSMENT:    computer system owned by the Department must have a warning
               banner on all access points. Every computer will require
               changes to its system files to ensure that a banner is
               displayed whenever the system is turned on or a user logs on.
______________________________________________________________________________
[Revised 6/22/99 Change one word in banner text. Change JavaScript banner]

                  Creating/Installing Warning Banners

The Department of Energy is requiring warning banners on all interactive
access points (for example, console login, telnet, ftp, http) and on all
non-interactive access points that provide a human readable response (for
example, finger). The Department prefers that banners are displayed prior to
access to system resources and that the user must acknowledge that compliance
before the user can access those resources. In the event that the system does
not support this pre-login capability, the system should display a warning at
or immediately after login. In the event that electronic banners and warnings
are not supported by a system, printed banners should be used that are clearly
visible to the user as they use the system.

NOTE: This document will change as CIAC determines new methods to add banners
to other access points; check the online version of this bulletin for
additions at http://www.ciac.org.

Warning Banner
==============

The Department of Energy's Office of the General Counsel has approved the
following banner for Federal Government computer systems.


***************************************************************************
                          NOTICE TO USERS

This is a Federal computer system and is the property of the United
States Government. It is for authorized use only. Users (authorized or
unauthorized) have no explicit or implicit expectation of privacy.

Any or all uses of this system and all files on this system may be
intercepted, monitored, recorded, copied, audited, inspected, and disclosed to
authorized site, Department of Energy, and law enforcement personnel,
as well as authorized officials of other agencies, both domestic and foreign.
By using this system, the user consents to such interception, monitoring,
recording, copying, auditing, inspection, and disclosure at the discretion of
authorized site or Department of Energy personnel.

Unauthorized or improper use of this system may result in administrative
disciplinary action and civil and criminal penalties. By continuing to use
this system you indicate your awareness of and consent to these terms and
conditions of use. LOG OFF IMMEDIATELY if you do not agree to the conditions
stated in this warning.

*****************************************************************************

Warning Banner for Public Servers
==============================================

Public servers such as public web servers and anonymous ftp servers that are
available to the general public must also have a banner. Public servers are
those that allow access by anyone who can connect to the server over a network
through a normal access point without requiring any authentication. The banner
must indicate to the user that they have no expectation of privacy while using
the server and that all access to the server is logged. The banner below is an
example of such a public banner for a public web server. This public banner is
only for the public access points to a server. Nonpublic access points to a
server must still display the Federal Government warning banner above.

***************************************************************************
                            NOTICE TO USERS

Use of this system constitutes consent to security monitoring and testing.
All activity is logged with your host name and IP address.

*****************************************************************************

Macintosh Startup Banners
=========================

On Macintosh computers, the normal startup screen can be replaced with a
banner. The banner is in the form of a bitmap image named StartupScreen and
placed in the System folder.

To create and install a startup warning banner on Macintosh systems, perform
these steps:

1.  Create the banner as a picture with a drawing program or download the
    sample from the ciac web site.
2.  Save the banner with the name StartupScreen and with the type
    StartupScreen.  Note that the SuperPaint program, among others, can create
    startup screens and that the GraphicConverter shareware utility can
    convert images created in other picture formats into startup screens.
3.  Place a copy in the System folder of each Macintosh computer.

Whenever the computer is booted, the banner is displayed, replacing the
Macintosh OS or Welcome to Macintosh banners. This works on all versions of
the Macintosh operating system through version 8.5.


Windows NT and Windows 95, 98 Login Banners
===========================================

The Windows NT and Windows 95 operating systems allow a login with a username
and password before the system can be used. The following method causes a
dialog box with the warning banner and an OK button to be displayed before the
system displays the login dialog box on Windows 95 or 98 and after pressing
Ctrl-Alt-Del on Windows NT.

To create a login banner on Windows 95, 98, or Windows NT you must add two
keys to the Windows registry. There are two ways to edit the registry. One is
to edit it directly; the second is to create a .reg file containing the
required changes and to execute the file with regedit.

Perform these steps to create a login banner on Windows 95, 98, or Windows NT
(for Windows95 or 98 substitute Windows for WindowsNT in the registry keys
below):

1.  Use regedit or regedit32 to edit the Windows registry.
2.  To set the login banner caption, create the following key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNT
        CurrentVersionWinlogonLegalNoticeCaption

    2.1 Using regedit, scroll down to the Winlogon key.
    2.2 With the Winlogon key selected choose the Edit, New, String Value
        command.
    2.3 Type the name of the new string value as: LegalNoticeCaption and press
        Enter.
    2.4 With the new string value selected, choose the Edit, Modify command.
    2.5 In the dialog box that is displayed, type: NOTICE TO USERS and press
        Enter.

3.  To set the banner text, create the following key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNT
        CurrentVersionWinlogonLegalNoticeText

    3.1 With the Winlogon key selected choose the Edit, New, String Value
        command.
    3.2 Type the name of the new string value as: LegalNoticeText and press
        Enter.
    3.3 With the new string value selected, choose the Edit, Modify command.
    3.4 In the dialog box that is displayed, type the body of the legal notice
        and press Enter. Note that the notice appears as a single paragraph
        because you can not type returns in the regedit key editor.

This banner appears as a dialog box just before the system displays the login
dialog box.

After editing the key with RegEdit, you can save the entries as a .reg file (a
copy is available from the CIAC web site). To create the file, select the two
keys you just created and choose the Registry, Export Registry File command,
give the file a name and click Save. You can copy this .reg file to other
machines and simply double clicking it will make the same edits to the
registries of the other machines.

You can edit these keys with RegEdit, RegEdit32 or the system policy editor
(poledit.exe). A difficulty is your inability to type a return in the editors,
creating the body of the warning as a single paragraph. If you are so
inclined, you can edit the dialog box with RegEdit32 in binary mode and type a
0D wherever you want a return to appear. Also available for Windows NT is the
regini.exe program in the Windows NT Resource Kit. That program edits registry
entries from a file and allows the insertion of returns in the file.

Note: Don't forget to have a different .reg file for Windows 95, 98 verses
Windows NT. This is related to the substitution of Windows for WindowsNT in
the editing instructions above.  You can create the different file by editing
the .reg file and changing the name of the key.

DOS and Windows 3.11 Startup Banners
====================================

In DOS and versions of Windows up to Windows 3.11 you can create a startup
banner by editing the Autoexec.bat file.

To create the DOS/Windows startup banner, perform these steps:

1.  Open the autoexec.bat file in a text editor.
2.  At the end of the file, just before the win command if it exists, type the
text of the banner with each line of banner text preceded with an echo
command.

   cls
   @echo off
   echo
   echo                       NOTICE TO USERS
   echo
   echo This is a Federal computer system and is the property of the
   echo United States Government. It is for authorized use only. Users
   echo (authorized or unauthorized) have no explicit or implicit expectation
   echo of privacy.
   echo
   echo Any or all uses of this system and all files on this system may be
   echo intercepted, monitored, recorded, copied, audited, inspected, and
   echo disclosed to authorized site, Department of Energy, and law
   echo enforcement personnel, as well as authorized officials of other
   echo agencies, both domestic and foreign. By using this system, the user
   echo consents to such interception, monitoring, recording, copying,
   echo auditing, inspection, and disclosure at the discretion of authorized
   echo site or Department of Energy personnel.
   echo
   echo Unauthorized or improper use of this system may result in
 ..echo administrative disciplinary action and civil and criminal penalties.
   echo By continuing to use this system you indicate your awareness of and
   echo consent to these terms and conditions of use. LOG OFF IMMEDIATELY if
   echo you do not agree to the conditions stated in this warning.
   pause

This message is displayed until you press any key.

You can get fancier by using line draw characters and colors (assuming
ansi.sys is loaded in the config.sys file).

UNIX Login Banners
==================

The banners for UNIX machines depend on the particular vendor and service. For
many recent systems (Sun, Linux), creating the file /etc/issue containing the
banner text causes the banner text to be displayed before the console login
and before all interactive logins such as telnet, rsh, and rlogin.

For other systems and for services that do not respond to the /etc/issue file,
put the banner text in the file /etc/motd. The contents of this file are
displayed by the global /etc/.login and the /etc/profile files, depending on
which shell you start (sh or csh), immediately after a successful login.
Displaying the /etc/motd file immediately after login is also an option for
the Secure Shell daemon (sshd) and is set in the /usr/local/etc/sshd_config
file.

Some versions of the FTP service have been modified to display, after login,
the contents of the file .login_message found in the root directory of the FTP
tree or in the users home directory. You will have to try this to see if it
works. If it does not work, you must put a file named NOTICE_TO_USERS
containing the warning text into the root directory of the anonymous ftp tree
and the file or a link to the file into each user's home directory.

For machines that do not use these methods for displaying banners, consult the
man pages for each service to see if there is a banner mechanism available.

NOTE: An important thing to note here is that if you remove a service from a
UNIX machine, your machine will be more secure and you will not have to worry
about placing a banner on that service. If you have open services that you do
not need simply remove them.

Web Pages
=========

For web pages you have two options. One is to replace your default home page
with a page that contains only the warning notice and a button to take you to
your real home page. The second is to add a JavaScript program to your home
page that is executed whenever the page is loaded. No matter which initial
banner you use, each page should contain a button in the header or footer
labeled "Notice To Users" that takes the user to a page that displays the
banner or that runs the JavaScript banner.

HTML Banner
- - ------------

The following web page implements the DOE banner in a box with the title
centered at the top. Below the banner is a link to the sites normal home page.

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<META NAME="GENERATOR" Content="Microsoft Visual Studio 6.0">
<TITLE>Notice To Users</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<CENTER>
<TABLE BORDER=1 CELLSPACING="1" WIDTH=80%>
<TR><TD VALIGN="center">
<CENTER>
<H2>NOTICE TO USERS</H2>
</CENTER>
<FONT size=2>
<P>This is a Federal computer system and is the property of the
United
States Government. It is for authorized use only. <B>Users (authorized or
unauthorized) have no explicit or implicit expectation of privacy.</B>

<P>Any or all uses of this system and all files on this system may be
intercepted, monitored, recorded, copied, audited, inspected, and disclosed to
authorized site, Department of Energy, and law enforcement personnel,
as well as authorized officials of other agencies, both domestic and foreign.
<B>By using this system, the user consents to such interception, monitoring,
recording, copying, auditing, inspection, and disclosure at the discretion of
authorized site or Department of Energy personnel.</B>

<P><B>Unauthorized or improper use of this system may result in administrative
disciplinary action and civil and criminal penalties. <U>By continuing to use
this system you indicate your awareness of and consent to these terms and
conditions of use. LOG OFF IMMEDIATELY if you do not agree to the conditions
stated in this warning.</U></B>

</FONT>
</TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
<A HREF="myhomepage.html">To Home Page</A>
</CENTER>
</BODY>
</HTML>

The following link should be added to the header or footer of each web page to
display the banner above. This link has the title "Notice To Users" and opens
the banner in a new window named "Notice To Users". If you want it to open in
the same window, remove the TARGET attribute. Here we assume that the banner
web page above is in a file named banner.htm in the root directory of the web.

<A HREF="/banner.htm" TARGET="Notice To Users">Notice To Users</A><br>

JavaScript Banner
- - ------------------

The following JavaScript program is run whenever the page containing it is
loaded and displays the banner in a dialog box with an OK button. To add it to
a web page, copy everything between the two SCRIPT tags, including the tags,
into the HEAD of the web page. To make it run whenever the page is loaded, add
the onLoad="do_banner()" attribute to the BODY tag. Note that if the users
have JavaScript turned off for their browser, this JavaScript banner will not
be displayed.

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Home Page</TITLE>
<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JavaScript">
function do_banner() {
var msg = "<HTML><HEAD><TITLE>NOTICE TO USERS</TITLE></HEAD>
"+
"<BODY BGCOLOR=white><FONT FACE='Times' SIZE=2>
"+
"<CENTER>NOTICE TO USERS</CENTER>
"+
"<P>This is a Federal computer system and is the property of the
 "+
"United States Government. It is for authorized use only. <B>Users
 "+ 
"(authorized or unauthorized) have no explicit or implicit expectation
 "+ 
"of privacy. </B>
 "+
"<P>Any or all uses of this system and all files on this system may be
 "+ 
"intercepted, monitored, recorded, copied, audited, inspected, and
 "+ 
"disclosed to authorized site, Department of Energy, and law enforcement
 "+
"personnel, as well as authorized officials of other agencies, both
 "+ 
"domestic and foreign. <B>By using this system, the user consents to such
 "+ 
"interception, monitoring, recording, copying, auditing, inspection, 
 "+ 
"and disclosure at the discretion of authorized site or Department
 "+ 
"of Energy personnel.</B>
 "+
"<P><B>Unauthorized or improper use of this system may result in
 "+ 
"administrative disciplinary action and civil and criminal penalties.
 "+ 
"<U>By continuing to use this system you indicate your awareness of and
 "+ 
"consent to these terms and conditions of use. LOG OFF IMMEDIATELY
 "+ 
"if you do not agree to the conditions stated in this warning.</U></B>
 "+
"<CENTER>
"+
"<FORM>
"+
"<INPUT TYPE=button VALUE='OK' onClick=window.close()>
"+
"</FORM>
"+
"</CENTER>"+
"</FONT></BODY></HTML>";
win1 = window.open("", "messageWindow", "toolbar=no,scrollbars=yes,width=600,height=500")
win1.document.write(msg)
}
</SCRIPT>
</HEAD>
<BR>
<!--The following line starts the body of the web page and runs the JavaScript
banner program whenever the page is loaded. -->
<BODY onLoad="do_banner()">
 .
 . <!---body of the home page--->
 .
</BODY>
</HTML>

The following two lines show two ways to add a link to a JavaScript banner
program from within a web page. The first adds a button to the page with the
text "Notice To Users" on it and runs the JavaScript banner program whenever
the button is clicked. The second creates a link with the text "Notice To
Users" that runs the JavaScript banner program whenever the link is clicked.
In both cases, the JavaScript banner program must also be present on the web
page.

<INPUT type=Button VALUE="Notice To Users" onClick="do_banner()">
<A onClick="do_banner()">Notice To Users</A>


Adding Warning Banners With TCP Wrappers
========================================

Unix users can apply banners to services such as ftp, telnet, etc. using the
TCPwrappers program. The TCPwrappers program has the capability to send a
banner to the connecting client whenever a connection to a service is
requested. Care must be taken as to which services banners are added to, as
many protocols are not meant to be read by humans and do not support text
banners. Note also that this works only for those services that are controlled
by TCPWrappers.

To add banners to your TCPwrappers program you have to recompile it with
the -DPROCESS_OPTIONS flag. The flag, which is a language extension, is NOT on
by default. You must then add a reference in the hosts.allow file to the
banner to display for each of the services you want to add a banner to. The
reference is to a banners directory for each service, which makes it possible
to have a different banner for each rule in hosts.allow should you so desire.
Finally, add the banner text to the directory in a file named prototype and
run the Banners.Makefile, shown below, in each banner directory to compile the
banner.

See the banners.Makefile file, shown below, in the TCPWrappers directory for
complete instructions on how to setup and use banners with TCPWrappers.

# @(#) Banners.Makefile 1.2 94/12/30 21:35:44
#
# Install this file as the Makefile in your directory with banner files.
# It will convert a prototype banner text to a form that is suitable for
# the ftp, telnet, rlogin, and other services.
#
# You'll have to comment out the IN definition below if your daemon
# names don't start with `in.'.
#
# The prototype text should live in the banners directory, as a file with
# the name "prototype". In the prototype text you can use %<character>
# sequences as described in the hosts_access.5 manual page (`nroff -man'
# format).  The sequences will be expanded while the banner message is
# sent to the client. For example:
#
#       Hello %u@%h, what brings you here?
#
# Expands to: Hello username@hostname, what brings you here? Note: the
# use of %u forces a client username lookup.
#
# In order to use banners, build the tcp wrapper with -DPROCESS_OPTIONS
# and use hosts.allow rules like this:
#
#       daemons ... : clients ... : banners /some/directory ...
#
# Of course, nothing prevents you from using multiple banner directories.
# For example, one banner directory for clients that are granted service,
# one banner directory for rejected clients, and one banner directory for
# clients with a hostname problem.
#
SHELL   = /bin/sh
IN      = in.
BANNERS = $(IN)telnetd $(IN)ftpd $(IN)rlogind # $(IN)fingerd $(IN)rshd

all:    $(BANNERS)

$(IN)telnetd: prototype
        cp prototype $@
        chmod 644 $@

$(IN)ftpd: prototype
        sed 's/^/220-/' prototype > $@
        chmod 644 $@

$(IN)rlogind: prototype nul
        ( ./nul ; cat prototype ) > $@
        chmod 644 $@

# Other services: banners may interfere with normal operation
# so they should probably be used only when refusing service.

$(IN)fingerd: prototype
        cp prototype $@
        chmod 644 $@

$(IN)rshd: prototype nul
        ( ./nul ; cat prototype ) > $@
        chmod 644 $@

# In case no /dev/zero available, let's hope they have at least
# a C compiler of some sort.

nul:
        echo 'main() { write(1,"",1); return(0); }' >nul.c
        $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -s -o nul nul.c
        rm -f nul.c
#


______________________________________________________________________________

CIAC wishes to acknowledge the contributions of Connie Soto and John Dias of
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the TCPwrappers information
contained in this bulletin.
______________________________________________________________________________


For additional information or assistance, please contact CIAC:

CIAC, the Computer Incident Advisory Capability, is the computer
security incident response team for the U.S. Department of Energy
(DOE) and the emergency backup response team for the National
Institutes of Health (NIH). CIAC is located at the Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory in Livermore, California. CIAC is also a founding
member of FIRST, the Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams, a
global organization established to foster cooperation and coordination
among computer security teams worldwide.

CIAC services are available to DOE, DOE contractors, and the NIH. CIAC
can be contacted at:
    Voice:    +1 925-422-8193
    FAX:      +1 925-423-8002
    STU-III:  +1 925-423-2604
    E-mail:   ciac@llnl.gov

For emergencies and off-hour assistance, DOE, DOE contractor sites,
and the NIH may contact CIAC 24-hours a day. During off hours (5PM -
8AM PST), use one of the following methods to contact CIAC:

    1.  Call the CIAC voice number 925-422-8193 and leave a message, or

    2.  Call 888-449-8369 to send a Sky Page to the CIAC duty person or

    3.  Send e-mail to 4498369@skytel.com, or

    4.  Call 800-201-9288 for the CIAC Project Leader.

Previous CIAC notices, anti-virus software, and other information are
available from the CIAC Computer Security Archive.

   World Wide Web:      http://www.ciac.org/
                        (or http://ciac.llnl.gov)
   Anonymous FTP:       ftp.ciac.org
                        (or ciac.llnl.gov)
   Modem access:        +1 (925) 423-4753 (28.8K baud)
                        +1 (925) 423-3331 (28.8K baud)

CIAC has several self-subscribing mailing lists for electronic
publications:
1. CIAC-BULLETIN for Advisories, highest priority - time critical
   information and Bulletins, important computer security information;
2. SPI-ANNOUNCE for official news about Security Profile Inspector
   (SPI) software updates, new features, distribution and
   availability;
3. SPI-NOTES, for discussion of problems and solutions regarding the
   use of SPI products.

Our mailing lists are managed by a public domain software package
called Majordomo, which ignores E-mail header subject lines. To
subscribe (add yourself) to one of our mailing lists, send the
following request as the E-mail message body, substituting
ciac-bulletin, spi-announce OR spi-notes for list-name:

E-mail to       ciac-listproc@llnl.gov or majordomo@tholia.llnl.gov:
        subscribe list-name
  e.g., subscribe ciac-bulletin

You will receive an acknowledgment email immediately with a confirmation
that you will need to mail back to the addresses above, as per the
instructions in the email.  This is a partial protection to make sure
you are really the one who asked to be signed up for the list in question.

If you include the word 'help' in the body of an email to the above address,
it will also send back an information file on how to subscribe/unsubscribe,
get past issues of CIAC bulletins via email, etc.

PLEASE NOTE: Many users outside of the DOE, ESnet, and NIH computing
communities receive CIAC bulletins.  If you are not part of these
communities, please contact your agency's response team to report
incidents. Your agency's team will coordinate with CIAC. The Forum of
Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST) is a world-wide
organization. A list of FIRST member organizations and their
constituencies can be obtained via WWW at http://www.first.org/.

This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an
agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States
Government nor the University of California nor any of their
employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any
legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or
usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process
disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately
owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial products,
process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or
otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,
recommendation or favoring by the United States Government or the
University of California. The views and opinions of authors expressed
herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States
Government or the University of California, and shall not be used for
advertising or product endorsement purposes.

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Telephone:	(07) 3365 4417 (International: +61 7 3365 4417)
		AusCERT personnel answer during Queensland business hours
		which are GMT+10:00 (AEST).
		On call after hours for emergencies.

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