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             AUSCERT External Security Bulletin Redistribution

                MOXA Weak Entropy in DSA Keys Vulnerability
                               7 August 2013


        AusCERT Security Bulletin Summary

Product:           Moxa OnCell Gateway
Publisher:         US-CERT
Operating System:  Network Appliance
Impact/Access:     Unauthorised Access -- Remote/Unauthenticated
Resolution:        Patch/Upgrade
CVE Names:         CVE-2012-3039  

Original Bulletin: 

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Advisory (ICSA-13-217-01)

MOXA Weak Entropy in DSA Keys Vulnerability

Original release date: August 05, 2013 | Last revised: August 06, 2013

Researcher Nadia Heninger of the University of California, San Diego, and 
researchers Zakir Durumeric, Eric Wustrow, and J. Alex Halderman of the 
University of Michigan identified an insufficient entropy vulnerability in 
Moxa's OnCell Gateways. Moxa produced and released a firmware upgrade on April 
3, 2013, that mitigates this vulnerability.

This vulnerability could be exploited remotely.

Affected Products

The following Moxa OnCell Gateway models (before firmware version 1.4) are 

         G3211, and


An attacker could gain unauthorized access to the gateway by determining the 
authentication keys from reused or nonunique SSH and SSL host keys. 
Exploitation of this vulnerability could allow an attacker to affect the 
confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the OnCell Gateways.

Impact to individual organizations depends on many factors that are unique to 
each organization. ICS-CERT recommends that organizations evaluate the impact
of this vulnerability based on their operational environment, architecture, and
product implementation.


Moxa is a Taiwan-based company that maintains offices in several countries 
around the world, including the US, UK, India, Germany, France, China, and 

The affected products, Moxa OnCell Gateways, are cellular IP gateways that can 
conveniently and transparently connect up to two devices to a cellular network.
This allows one to connect their existing Ethernet and serial devices with 
basic configuration.

According to Moxa, Moxa OnCell Gateways are deployed across several sectors, 
including critical manufacturing, transportation systems, information 
technology, water and wastewater, and communications. Moxa estimates that these
products are used globally, are focused mostly in the Asia-Pacific region, and
have smaller deployments in the Americas and Europe.

Vulnerability Characterization

Vulnerability Overview

Insufficient entropy[a]

The OnCell G3111, G3151, G3211, and G3251 gateways do not use sufficient 
entropy when generating keys for SSH and SSL connections; therefore, these keys
are vulnerable to exploits. By calculating private authentication keys, an 
attacker could gain unauthorized access to the system and read information on 
the device, as well as send commands to the device, which would compromise the
integrity and confidentiality of the data and could compromise the 

CVE-2012-3039[b] has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v2 base score 
of 7.1 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is 

Vulnerability Details


This vulnerability could be exploited remotely.

Existence of Exploit

No known public exploits specifically target this vulnerability.


An attacker with a high skill level would be able to exploit this 


Moxa released a firmware upgrade (OnCell G3111/G3151/G3211/G3251 Version 1.4) 
for these products on April 3, 2013, and is currently in the process of sending 
notification to its customers. This upgrade can be downloaded from the Moxa 
software download page at the following link: 
http://www.moxa.com/support/download.aspx?type=support&id=222. The firmware 
upgrade fixes the vulnerability by increasing the entropy in the dynamically 
generated keys to avoid nonuniqueness and key reuse.

ICS-CERT encourages asset owners to take additional defensive measures to 
protect against this and other cybersecurity risks.

        Minimize network exposure for all control system devices. Critical 
	devices should not directly face the Internet.

        Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and 
	isolate them from the business network.

        When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual 
	Private Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPN is only as secure as the 
	connected devices.

ICS-CERT also provides a section for control systems security recommended 
practices on the ICS-CERT Web page. Several recommended practices are available
for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems 
Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies.[d] ICS-CERT reminds 
organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to 
taking defensive measures.

Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available
in the ICS-CERT Technical Information Paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B-Targeted Cyber
Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies,[e] that is available for 
download from the ICS-CERT Web page (http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/).

Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their 
established internal procedures and report their findings to ICS-CERT for 
tracking and correlation against other incidents.
    a. CWE-331: Insufficient Entropy, 
       http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/331.html, Web site last accessed 
       August 05, 2013.
    b. NVD, http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2012-3039, NIST
       uses this advisory to create the CVE Web site report. This Web site will
       be active sometime after publication of this advisory.
    c. CVSS Calculator, 
       Web site last visited August 05, 2013.
    d. CSSP Recommended Practices, 
       http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/content/recommended-practices, Web site last
       accessed August 05, 2013.
    e. Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies, 
       http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/tips/ICS-TIP-12-146-01B, Web site last 
       accessed August 05, 2013

Contact Information

For any questions related to this report, please contact ICS-CERT at:

Email: ics-cert@hq.dhs.gov
Toll Free: 1-877-776-7585
International Callers: (208) 526-0900

For industrial control systems security information and incident reporting: 

ICS-CERT continuously strives to improve its products and services. You can 
help by answering a short series of questions about this product at the 
following URL: https://forms.us-cert.gov/ncsd-feedback/.


For Legal Information pertaining to this document, please consult 

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